Oil shipments through the Strait of Malacca supply China and Indonesia, two of the world's fastest growing economies. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Asia. In 1824 the Anglo-Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was signed between the Dutch and the British. WIC (West-Indische Compagnie), Australia and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), India. From here they controlled the tin trade. The Malays were confident of a victory with the help of the Dutch, thus regaining the Malacca throne. The Strait of Malacca is the shortest shipping route between the Far East and the Indian Ocean. Bernard Pierre Wolff/Photo Researchers The Sultanate of Johore (the Dutch ally during the siege of Portuguese Malacca) took advantage of all this by opening his seaport of Riau (an Indonesian island near Singapore) to all ships and to all types of commerce. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. Exactly 508 years ago a thriving city on the western coast of the Malay Peninsula became the axis upon which history spun toward a new direction. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps, The Russians in America: Alaska and California, A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro, The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Tidore: The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore, 1606-1663, South East Asia and in Far East Asia. A good book on Malacca/Dutch history. However, the Malacca Sultanate would not last, as the newly powerful Portugal conquered the kingdom in 1511 and began a centuries-long period of European domination. Kedah served as a western port on the Malay Peninsula. In Perak the Dutch fort was reoccupied. Although its origin is as much romance as history, the fact is that Parameswara's new city was situated at a point of enormous strategic importance. Several proposals have been made to increase bypass options and reduce tanker traffic through the Strait of Malacca. The Melaka Sultanate occupies a special position in the history of Malaysia. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Africa. Index: The Dutch conquest and its aftermath, the crisis with Johor 1700-1718, the Dutch company and the Bugis opting for neutrality, Dutch alliance with Malays, neutrality revisited, neutrality abandoned: the Dutch capture of Riau, the VOC’s “forward movement” in the Straits of Malacca. I have published some writings on the history of geographical exploration and colonialism, particularly on the spice islands, the Moluccas. Regional energy information including dashboards, maps, data, and analyses. The resulting treaty ended Johore’s independence and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The birthplace of the Malay Sultanates and Malaysia’s historic city, Melaka provided the stage on which the Portuguese, Dutch and English played out their roles in shaping the history. State energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. It’s one of the most historical sites in all of Malacca. Merchants from both these regions, Arabs, Indians and Chinese regularly visited. Portuguese land title dilemma” vi+89 pp. The capital, Malacca, was for a brief period in the 13th to 14th century one of the greatest trading cities in the world, and it is today a city of remarkable historical and cultural interest. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Indonesia. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. In 1710 St. Peter’s Church is built. Map of the Malay Peninsula. This treaty enabled the Dutch to impose their control on this area: Linggi and Rembau were ceded to the VOC. The Dutch improved and expanded the Portuguese fortress and built walls to protect the harbour and expanded city. A shipwrecked Portuguese Galleon, The abortive expedition of Don Juan de Silva against the Dutch in the East Indies (1612-1616), Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas, Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil, Fort Orange (Oranje), Itamaracá: a Dutch fortress in Brazil, Dutch in Chile: Hendrick Brouwer’s expedition to Valdivia, Dutch New York: The Dutch settlements in North America, Dutch and Courlanders on Tobago. By the 1660s the trade in Dutch Malacca was in decline and the relations with the Malay states had deteriorated as well. Nearly one-third of the 61% of total global petroleum and other liquids production that moved on maritime routes in 2015 transited the Strait of Malacca, the second-largest oil trade chokepoint in the world after the Strait of Hormuz. Perak was the main tin producing kingdom on the whole peninsula and the VOC was interested in controlling its trade. Melaka and the Chinese In 1405 an ambassador of the Chinese Ming Empire, the eunuch admiral Cheng Ho (or Zheng He), sailed into harbour with a huge armada of giant trading ships. Some became domiciled in ports such as Melaka [formerly Malacca], the location of one of the earliest local sultanates (c.1402 A.D.) and a focal point for both local and international trade. The Strait of Malacca, which flows between Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, connects the Indian Ocean with the Pacific Ocean through the South China Sea. In February 1757 reinforcements arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege. For this reason a Dutch outpost was established from 1670 to 1690 at Teluk Gedung on pulau Pangkor. 20 A very interesting paper with various information on the numerical and ethnical composition of Dutch Malacca. Finally I am passionate about astronomy. A history of the first settlements 1628-1677, The Castle of Good Hope: A Dutch Fort in South Africa, The Dutch in South Africa, 1652-1795 and 1802-1806, The Dutch Heritage in South Africa: the Afrikaans Language and the Dutch Reformed Church, The Dutch on São Tomé and Principe: the attacks on the island of Principe (1598) and São Tomé (1599), The Dutch on Mauritius 1638-1658, 1664-1710, The Portuguese on the Persian Gulf and on the Arabian Peninsula, The Portuguese in Ceylon: The Portuguese in Sri Lanka before the war with the Dutch, The Jesuit Missions in South America: Jesuits Reductions in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Fort Jesus Mombasa: a Portuguese fortress in Kenya, India. p. 195-241. several maps The history of the fort of Malacca during the Portuguese and Dutch time. – Andaya, Barbarba Watson “Melaka under the Dutch 1641-1795”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital ca. After a nice delicious lunch, let's go for a little … In those years it was rumored that the Dutch might leave the city. Financial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. Within years, news about Malacca becoming a centre of trade and commerce began to spread all over the eastern part of the world. Then the site www.borghiditoscana.net dedicated to my region: Tuscany. Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power appeared on the scene: the British. A detailed historical research. Unfortunately, however, the Malacca Sultanate would not last, as the newly powerful Portugal conquered the kingdom in 1511 and began a centuries-long period of European domination. The only thing is that the article must be original and not previously published on other websites. I designed some internet sites including the www.colonialvoyage.com site dedicated to the history of geographical exploration and colonialism. Because of the city’s long and varied past, there are as many different ways to spell Malacca, you will see most commonly Malacca and Melaka. They traded glassware, camphor, cotton goods, brocades, ivory, sandalwood, perfume, and precious stones. 1400-1980”, Vol. Boasting a good blend of historic attractions – from the salmon-pink Stadhuys to the Jonker Walk Night Market – Malacca is also home to a smorgasbord of great food. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, The Dutch East India Company: VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), Map of Dutch settlements in Guyana and Suriname 1600-1750, The Dutch in Formosa 1624-1662, 1664-1668, Index of the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon, Dutch and Portuguese remains in Sri Lanka: forts and churches, The Dutch Burghers of Sri Lanka. As well as many other travel sites in different languages. Kedah provided accommodations, porters, small vessels, bamboo rafts, elephants, as well as tax collections fo… Dutch Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, Oceania. Posted by: Marco Ramerini Fortified with thick walls, … 87-106, 1961, Lisbon, Portugal. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Cornell University, 1971, – Arasaratnam, S. “Dutch commercial policy and interests in the Malay peninsula, 1750-1795” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Central America. The VOC maintained the alliance with Johore despite the discontent of Malacca. He was the last ruler of ancient Singapore who was of Malay origin. The ruler decided to make this place a permanent settlement and named it ‘Melaka… Monthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, congressional reports. My e-mail is at the bottom of the page. Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. In 1710 the St. Peter’s Church is built. In 1660 even the factory established at Ujung Salang was abandoned. On 14 January 1641 the Dutch took possession from the Portuguese of the fortress of Malacca with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johore. At its narrowest point in the Phillips Channel of the Singapore Strait, the Strait of Malacca is only about 1.7 miles wide, creating a natural bottleneck with the potential for collisions, grounding, or oil spills. Founded by a martial prince generations prior, Malacca flourished from the trade between China and the Middle East, its location was such that the single narrow body of water it commanded–a narrow strait buttressed by Sumatra–kept its name. Yet in the summer of 1511 a small fleet of Portuguese carracks blockaded its port and effected a siege. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. The only importance of Malacca for the Dutch was that it was situated on a very strategic point and they did not want Malacca to fall into the hands of any other European power; this is why the Dutch remained. The rise in importance of Malacca in the 16th century and beyond was the result of local elites and their ability to mobilize trading networks and the arrival of enterprising Chinese who became merchants, miners, and general traders. – Lewis, Dianne “Jan compagnie in the Straits of Malacca 1641-1795” 176 pp. Index: The occupation of the Straits of Malacca 1636-1639, the siege and the capture of Malacca 1640-1641, commissary Justus Schouten’s report of his visit to Malacca 1641. Founded by a martial prince generations prior, Malacca flourished from the trade between China and the Middle East, its location was such that the single narrow body of water… The rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arabian and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. Malacca rose from a humble fishing village to become a major center of the spice trade forming a vital link between the East and the West. To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Indonesia. The Strait of Malacca. It has been a strategic trading post for the incredibly profitable spice trade for nearly a thousand years, and hotly contested, changing hands many times throughout history. Friday, January 22, 2021. Malacca was too important for the VOC strategies, as the city was situated on the main trade route to the Far East (Spices islands, China and Japan) and was a formidable strategic outpost. In the year 1509 the first Portuguese trading expedition, commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequiera , … international, liquid fuels, crude oil, oil/petroleum, petroleum products, daily, chokepoints, Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article? 195-241. Other ethnic groups also contributed to making Malacca a cosmopolitan port. The Strait of Malacca is also an important transit route for liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Persian Gulf and African suppliers, particularly Qatar, to East Asian countries with growing LNG demand. U.S. The VOC was truly dominant in the Straits. Written by Marco Ramerini. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). On 9 April 1825 the Dutch ceded Malacca. There are no specific guidelines. Unfortunately, the fame of Malacca arrived at just the moment when Europe began to extend its power into the East, and Malacca was one of the very first cities to attract its covetous eye. The Dutch had a factory at Bengkalis (1670s) at the mouth of the Siak river (Sumatra). Nearly one-third of the 61% of total global petroleum and other liquids production that moved on maritime routes in 2015 transited the Strait of Malacca, the second-largest oil trade chokepoint in the world after the Strait of Hormuz.Petroleum and other liquids transiting the Strait of Malacca increased for the fourth time in the past five years in 2016, reaching 16 million barrels per day (b/d). The purpose of the fort was to collect taxes from the tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selangor. History. In that year the Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River and named it Philippe (today’s Kota Linggi) after the daughter of the Dutch Governor Jacob Mussel (Governor of Batavia from 1750 to 1761). Dutch Ceylon, Trincomalee: Bibliography. During their rule the British demolished the fortress of Malacca. Photographer. – Sta Maria, Joseph “Undi nos by di aki? The Strait of Malacca was the shortest path between China and India, and thus was a frequently used trade route. Of course, the argument is the colonial history and everything connected to it. EIA's free and open data available as API, Excel add-in, bulk files, and widgets. In raw terms, passage through the Straits of Malacca amounts to around ... possible that India would not be comfortable with a major Chinese capability located in the area to protect its trade route. “The siege and capture of Malacca from the Portuguese in 1640-1641” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. However, the Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Malacca History Dubbed Malaysia’s unofficial historic capital, Malacca – declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2008 – is one of the country’s most unassuming states. The strait derived its name from the trading port of Melaka (formerly Malacca)—which was of importance in the 16th and 17th centuries—on the Malay coast. – Irwin, G. W. “Melaka fort”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital c. 1400-1980” Vol. Copyright © 1998-2020. Melaka (Malacca) is rich with history. With a highly strategic state position for international trade routes, Malacca was once a well-known international trade centre in the East. Under the Dutch Batavia was the main Eastern base of the VOC and the company had no interest in developing Malacca’s trade to the detriment of that of Batavia. The Strait of Malacca became an important maritime trade route between India and China. Small boats moored at Port Kelang harbour, Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia Far East: China, Taiwan (Formosa), Japan. Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. n° 10; Prakash, Om “European commercial expansion in early modern Asia” pp. Short, timely articles with graphics on energy, facts, issues, and trends. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia. After the capture the Dutch set up a government. Index; Live Quotes; Trade History; My Account; Portfolio – Leupe, P.A. During the period of Dutch rule Malacca had a garrison of usually less than 550 Dutchmen. Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang. The strength of Johore was seen as a safeguard to the peaceful trade on the Straits. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang. The trade of Riau (the seaport for the Johore Sultanate) had far surpassed that of Malacca. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes). I research and write about history. Forms EIA uses to collect energy data including descriptions, links to survey instructions, and additional information. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. It is still the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia. Development of new trading cities Development of new trading cities Trading cities played an important role in the spread of goods on the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade routes. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang. Southeast Asia scholars see the founding of Sultanate Melaka as port and polity in 1402/03 facilitating a centralization of trade after the vacuum created by the polycentric Srivijaya empire’s decline which had fragmented the related Bay of Bengal world between 1300 and 1400. In the 1700s Johore was a powerful force on the Straits. List of Dutch forts and colonial possessions, North America. Sign up for email subcriptions to receive messages about specific EIA products. During the Napoleonic wars the Dutch Governor surrendered Malacca to the British East India Company in August 1795. 159-189. During their rule the fa… Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, America. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Meaning that any Chinese attempts to alleviate its energy security dilemma will occur in the strategic vicinity of India. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Africa. in Dutch Colonialism, Malaysia Reserves, production, prices, employment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. The oil portion of the pipeline was completed in August 2014, and it is now operational at full capacity. Bordered on its northern side by the Malay Peninsula and on the southern side by the island of Sumatra, it was the main connection between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Yin Qing's visit opened the way for the establishment of friendly relations between Malacca and China. The biggest importers of LNG in the region are Japan and South Korea. The founder and first ruler of Malacca, Paramesvara (d. 1424, Malacca), a Sumatran prince who had fled his native Palembang under Javanese attack, established himself briefly in Tumasik (now … one Edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. International energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Come test out some of the products still in development and let us know what you think! Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices? The Strait of Malacca is the primary chokepoint in Asia, and in recent years, between 85% and 90% of annual total petroleum flows through this chokepoint were crude oil. 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